Archive for the 'Active Directory' Category

Group Membership Unions and Intersections

A friend of mine recently asked for one-liners for Active Directory group membership union and intersection.

These are the one-liners which I sent him:

Group Union – users present in either of the groups (he needed a list of DNs of direct members of two groups):

(Get-QADGroupMember GroupA –Type user) + (Get-QADGroupMember GroupB –Type user) | 
 Select-ExpandProperty DN
 Sort | Select-Unique

Group Intersection – users present in both groups at the same time:

Compare-Object (Get-QADGroupMember GroupA –Type user) `
 (Get-QADGroupMember GroupB –Type user) `
 -ExcludeDifferent -IncludeEqual | Select-ExpandProperty InputObject

You can obviously tweak them to add indirect users (with -indirect parameter) or enabled only (-enabled), etc. – see Get-QADGroupMember help for all options.

I am pretty sure that there are multiple ways to skin these cats – so if you have better alternatives – please post these in the comments.

Show your support: Vote for AD cmdlets, PowerShell, and PowerGUI

If Get-QADUser (or any other QAD cmdlet) or PowerGUI ever saved your day – now is a good time to show your love and spread the news. 🙂

Windows IT Pro magazine put us in their community award finals. So if you want to show your support:

1. Simply go to the award voting page,

2. For the first nomination, Best Active Directory & Group Policy Product, pick Quest Software ActiveRoles Management Shell for Active Directory (who would have thought that the official name was so long):

3. And obviously leave them a note in the Give us a killer quote about your winner! box.

4. Also, believe it or not 17. Best Microsoft Product has PowerShell as one of the options.

5. 21. Best Scripting Tool has Quest Software PowerGUI:

6. And obviously feel free to either ignore all other categories or cast your vote there as well.

Cast your vote now – before the contest is over.

Clean up expired certificates from AD

Security MVP Vadims Podans just did a great post on using PowerShell to remove expired user certificates from Active Directory.

In a nutshell,

  • If your company is using certificates for user authentication or encryption, these expire every now and then,
  • Your Enterprise CA in that case appends new certificates to users’ userCertificate attribute, while leaving expired certs there as well,
  • Over time these increasingly clutter your AD, making administration more difficult and negatively affecting AD replication traffic.

Luckily, cleaning up expired certificates with PowerShell is extremely easy.

To do the clean-up for a specific user you can run this one-liner:

Get-QADUser username | Remove-QADCertificate -Valid:$false

To clean-up the entire domain, just do:

Get-QADUser | Remove-QADCertificate -Valid:$false

See Vadim’s original post for details.

Read more about PKI management with PowerShell here.

Find everyone rolling up to me

Yesterday someone asked me to help create a distribution list for everyone reporting to a particular manager (directly or indirectly). Needless to say, that PowerShell makes getting a list of such user accounts a piece of cake!

Here’s the quick script (using AD cmdlets) which I emailed back:

function Get-QADIndirectReport {
param ($Identity)
  # Find all direct reports
  Get-QADUser -Manager $Identity | ForEach-Object {
      # Output direct report
    $_ 
    # Then recursively call this function for all
    # reports of this report
    Get-QADIndirectReport -Identity $_
  }

}

# usage example
Get-QADIndirectReport 'Dmitry Sotnikov'

Basically, AD cmdlets natively can retrieve all direct reports, and I have created a function which keeps going deeper level-by-level getting everyone reporting indirectly as well.

You can then take this a few steps further. For example, say, you want to get a list of users you could then just copy/paste into Outlook. Simply select the Email property from the user objects and ask PowerShell to put semicolon between the addresses:

# get a list of addresses for an email message
(Get-QADIndirectReport 'Dmitry Sotnikov' | 
  Select-Object -ExpandProperty Email) -join '; '

Or you could indeed use the list to populate a group:

# add everyone to a group
Get-QADIndirectReport 'Dmitry Sotnikov' |
  Add-QADGroupMember DmitrysReports

Or you could further restrict the list by City, Department and so on by simply tweaking Get-QADUser parameters in the code above. PowerShell is super-flexible!

Loose or exact matching in AD cmdlets

Do you know what is the difference between Get-QADComputer A2101 and Get-QADComputer -Name A2101?

When we were designing Quest AD cmdlets we did our best to be as forgiving as possible. So for example you can just do Get-QADUser and get the first 1000 user objects (or whatever is the default number you set) retrieved. Or you can just do a Get-QADUser Dmitry and get all the Dmitry’s you have in your organizations (if you have any :))

In most cases, this forgiving nature is what you are in the command-line interactively managing your Active Directory. If you have ever tried using some other snapins/modules from other vendors who went a different route – you should have noticed how much difference this makes.

However, sometimes you do want to be explicit and just get the exact object you want and not just whatever matches. In this forum thread Jason was trying to update a set of computer records based on a CSV file he was importing.

Unfortunately for him, some of computer names in his environment include other names. E.g. he not only has a computer called ‘A2101’, but also ‘A21012’ and ‘A21013’.

Which means that Get-QADComputer A2101 returns all three of those:
a2101
a21012
a21013

Jason obviously did not need the other two computers and explicitly wanted to update just the one which matches exaqctly.

Luckily the workaround is very simple. If you know what you need – be explicit when you are asking for it. For example, if the you are identifying the computer by its Name – just tell us so and if no wildcards are used we will only retrieve the exact match:

Get-QADComputer -Name A2101 only returns one computer record with Name being A2101.

Happy scripting!

Clear AD attribute

Just yesterday a colleague of mine asked me how to undo an Active Directory object property change from the value he erroneously put back to <not set>. It turned out that I never actually blogged about that – so here you go. 🙂

Clearing AD attributes us actually as easy as just setting the value to $null. For example, here’s how you do it for properties which we have exposed in Set- cmdlets parameters:

Set-QADUser 'Amy Hardy' -City $null

Or for more internal attributes:

Set-QADUser 'Amy Hardy' -ObjectAttributes @{adminDescription=$null}

Hope that helps!

Find group members by location

Today I had to promote a local event to everyone on our cloud taskforce. The distribution list we have for everyone interested in cloud projects is quite large so I thought I would share this one-liner with you.

The first version I tried was quite straight-forward – simply get all team members and filter out the members based on their city:

Get-QADGroupMember Cloud -Indirect |
    where { $_.City-eq "Aliso Viejo" }

However, this actually was quite slow – because the group is big and all the filtering was happening on the client side (all objects were extracted from domain controller and then filtered by PowerShell on my workstation). The solution is to use parameters of the initial Get cmdlet. Get-QADGroupMember unfortunately does not have the City parameter yet, so I used the universal LdapFilter parameter to do the proper filtering.

Get-QADGroupMember Cloud -Indirect -LdapFilter '(l=Aliso Viejo)'

This second one-liner performed almost twice faster – so this is the one I would recommend for large group use!

Dmitry

Managing Certificate Revocation Lists and Certificate Stores

Vadims has published a couple of articles with great examples of how to use PowerShell to manage CRLs (Certificate Revocation List) and local certificate stores.

CRL tasks include:

  • Importing CRL:
$crl = Import-QADCertificateRevocationList -File C:\pica-1.crl
  • Reviewing CRL details:
$crl | format-list *
  • Add CRL to local certificate store:
Add-QADCertificateRevocationList -CRL $crl -Store $store
  • CRL removal:
Get-QADCertificateRevocationList -Store $store |
  where-object {$_.IssuedBy -like "sysadmins*"} |
  Remove-QADCertificateRevocationList -Store $store
  • CRL export:
Export-QADCertificateRevocationList -CRL $crl -File c:\customcrl.crl
  • Publishing CRL:
Publish-QADCertificateRevocationList -CRL $crl -CAName CustomCAName
  • Unpublishing CRL:
Get-QADPKIObject CDP |
  Get-QADCertificateRevocationList |
  where-object {$_.IssuedBy -like "sysadmins*"} |
  Unpublish-QADCertificateRevocationList -CAName "CustomCAName"

For certificate store management, Vadims goes through:

  • Exploring certificate stores:
Get-QADLocalCertificateStore -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName My |
  Get-QADCertificate
  • Adding certificate stores:
New-QADLocalCertificateStore -StoreLocation CurrentUser -StoreName CustomStoreNameToAdd
  • Removing certificate stores:
Remove-QADLocalCertificateStore -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName CustomStoreToDelete

For all these, Vadims is providing tons of details so I highly recommend checking those out:

Managing Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) with PowerShell

Managing Certificate Stores with PowerShell

PKI management with PowerShell

Guide for Using Quest AD-PKI cmdlets: Using PowerShell to manage your security certificatesComplete guide for security certificate management with AD cmdlets 1.4 got recently published here and is a must-read if you want to automate your public key infrastructure (PKI).

PKI allows security administrators to uniquely identify and trust hardware devices by using digital certificates. This technique is one of the most secure access strategies, but can also be complicated to set up and manage. This guide reviews the security concepts surrounding digital certificate management and details how the AD-PKI cmdlets can be used with Active Directory to simplify PKI management.

Here’s the table of content from the guide:

  • Understanding Digital Certificates
    • Cryptography Fundamentals
      • Symmetric Encryption
      • Asymmetric Encryption
      • Best Practices for Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption
  • Types of Certificates
    • X509 Certificate Version 1
    • X509 Certificate Version 2
    • X509 Certificate Version 3
      • Common Certificate Extensions
  • Certificate Revocation List
    • X509 Certificate Revocation List Version 1
    • X509 Certificate Revocation List Version 2
      • Common CRL Extensions
  • Certificate Stores and Containers
    • Local Certificate Stores
    • Active Directory Certificate Containers
  • Certificate cmdlet Descriptions
  • Object Structures of Certificate Stores, Certificates, and CR
    • Certificate Store
    • Certificate
    • Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
  • Using Quest AD PKI-related cmdlets
    • Working with Certificate Stores
      • Explore Certificate Store
      • Create Certificate Store Container
      • Delete Certificate Store Container
    • Adding Certificates to a Certificate Store
      • Certificate File Types
      • Import a Single Certificate
      • Import a Pkcs7 Certificate Container
      • Import a Serialized Store
      • Import a Pkcs12 Certificate with a Private Key
      • Add Imported Certificates to a Store
      • Add an Imported Certificate to a User Account
      • Advanced Techniques
    • Exporting Certificates from a Certificate Store
      • Simple Certificate Export
      • Export a Certificate with a Private Key
      • Export Multiple Certificates
  • Working with Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)
    • Add CRLs to a Certificate Store
    • Export CRLs from a Certificate Store
    • Remove a CRL from a Certificate Store
  • Manage Active Directory PKI-related Containers
    • Publish a Certificate to Active Directory Containers
    • Remove a Certificate from Active Directory Containers
    • Publish CRLs to Active Directory Containers
    • Remove CRLs from Active Directory

Download the ebook “Guide for Using QuestAD-PKI cmdlets: Using PowerShell to manage your security certificates” and get the most out of your PKI environment.

PKI Management Console 1.5

Vadim‘s enterprise certificate management PowerPack went 1.5 and got significantly enhanced. The new features include:

  • Native use of Quest AD Cmdlets (version 1.4.2) – so better performance and the code which is easier to understand.
  • Additional error handling.
  • Certification Authorities information includes CA CRL status.
  • New Active Directory PKI node that contains the most common AD PKI-related containers. You can review container contents and publish/unpublish certificates/CRLs by using new actions.
  • Now the PowerPack correctly retrieves all available Enterprise OCSP Responders even if they are not running CA service.
  • For Certificates node now has two subcontainers: Certificates and CRLs. This allows you to browse both — certificates and CRLs in the local certificate store. For CRLs added new basic actions.
  • Graphical dialog boxes for certificate export and import actions.

And of course it still has the great functionality from previous versions:

Here’s a very quick summary of some of the features his tool has:

  • Certificate Authorities management:
    • CRL Distribution Points (CDP)
    • Authority Information Access (AIA) settings
    • Review CRLs
    • Publish new CRLs
    • Change CRL publishing periods including overlap settings
    • Revoked Certificates
    • Issued Certificates
    • Pending requests
    • Failed requests
    • Issued certificate templates
    • Revoke/unrevoke certificates
    • Issue or deny pending requests for certificates
    • Add/remove certificate templates to issue
    • Change CRL/CRT/OCSP URL priorities
  • Local certificate store management:
    • Import/Export certificates using various certificate types (such CER/pkcs12/pkcs7/SST)
    • Copy/move certificates between stores
    • Delete certificate from store
    • Validate certificates passing them through certificate chaining engine
    • Sign files
  • Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) Responders management
    • Review and change OCSP Responder settings
    • Change OCSP URL priorities

All of these support bulk operations, filtering, and reporting. All are available with their source PowerShell code for your reference and scripting.

Learn more about the Enterprise PKI PowerPack and download it here.


Legal

The posts on this blog are provided “as is” with no warranties and confer no rights. The opinions expressed on this site are mine and mine alone, and do not necessarily represent those of my employer - WSO2 or anyone else for that matter. All trademarks acknowledged.

© 2007-2014 Dmitry Sotnikov

July 2020
M T W T F S S
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031  

%d bloggers like this: